The area where the venting took place was SE of the summit, near Kagano (29.217°E, 1.433°S), a center active during 1989-98 (see map in SEAN 14:05). The last of these swarms occurred during 4-6 May 2004. Data collected early in the eruption, on 4 January, led UNOSAT analysts to suggest that MODIS Aqua thermal anomalies were "likely to represent active fires and lava on the eastern edge of the main crater," which "extended approximately 12 km along the southern slope toward Lake Kivu.". More specifically, the forest surrounding Nyamuragira has been partly occupied by rebel groups since 1994, a situation that has thwarted geological observations. Thermal hotspots identified by MODVOLC from 15 December 2019 through March 2020 were mainly located in the active central crater, with only three hotspots just outside the SW crater rim (figure 89). MODVOLC thermal alerts ceased after 8 April, and the MIROVA thermal data also confirmed a decrease in the strength of the thermal signal during April 2019 (figure 84). Another fracture was active on the S flank, with lava fountains and one lava flow traveling towards the SW. During 27 October-2 November, seismic data were collected at eight operational stations (Katale, Kibumba, Bulengo, Rusayo, Luboga, Goma, Lwiro, and Kunene). The eruption was visible at Park headquarters. According to Bobrowski and others (2015) during 25 October to 5 November 2014 the lava lake was "still under formation" and field surveys carried out failed to find evidence for it. During 8-14 December the number of long-period earthquakes fell from to 169 at the Katale station from 239 the previous week, though the number of high-frequency earthquakes increased from 92 to 120. The team landed by helicopter in the summit caldera, reached the eruption site by foot, and spent 24 hours on the scene. [Project SR/00/113] (URL: http://www.ecgs.lu/gorisk/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/GORISK_Final_Report_DISSEMINATION.pdf ), Smets, B., Wauthier, C., d'Oreye, N. (2010). False eruption report, January 2002. When a CRSN team returned . Goma is the city where the major encampment of Rwandan civil-war refugees is located. In addition to the lava flow, the eruption was characterized by ejection of bombs, cinders, and ash from the crater and a strong rumbling.
Lava fountains reached higher than 300 m during the first days of the eruption. The Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology at the School of Ocean and Earth Science Technology (HIGP/SOEST) tracked the eruption using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) global hot-spot data. Seismic activity had then gradually increased until the onset of lava production. He told Reuters: "We believe the eruption will continue for several weeks-we still hear terrible underground rumblings." Bluth, G.J.S, and Carn, S.A., (in progress), Exceptional sulphur degassing from Nyamuragira volcano, 1979-2005: Int. A lava lake in the crater was confirmed on 6 November 2014, and it produced a consistent and strengthening thermal anomaly through the first week of April 2016, when it stopped abruptly. Locations are shown on figure 12. The latter was ~13 x 6 km in size, oriented in an E-ESE direction. The low tremor level does not signify an overall reduction in the Nyiragongo lava lake activity, but no fresh lava was apparent in the crater. The anomaly grew in size, with an image on 27 July showing a large anomaly on the N flank and a subordinate anomaly on the S flank. The first fissure was oriented E-W, perpendicular to the rift, and emitted lava fountains up to 300 m high. ", Card 1187 (30 April 1971) Tephra-fall up to 60 km away damages crops, "The eruption of Nyamuragira probably began on the day of 24 March and rapidly took spectacular proportions. The tectonic earthquakes had depths of 0-30 km with an aseismic zone between 12 and 17 km. Inset in black box: The FEM model of Kitagawa et al. The last eruption of Nyamulagira was on July 26, 2002 and did not cause casualties but destroyed dense tropical forest that is home to rich and varied wildlife. Bukavu, DR Congo;
Although no flows were detected leaving Kimanura vent, Rothery suggested that it was probably still active. Most of the events occurred within a 10 km radius around Nyamuragira's summit caldera and were aligned roughly N-S. Nyamuragira (or Nyamulagira), a high-potassium basaltic shield volcano on the W edge of VVP, includes a lava field that covers over 1,100 km2 and contains more than 100 flank cones in addition to a large central crater (see figure 63, BGVN 42:06). April 2011-January 2015: Lava fountains; and by 1 November, a lava lake. More than 10 times the normal number of volcanic earthquakes were recorded on 11 December from Lwiro (~l00 km SSW of the volcano), and significantly more than the normal number on 12, 21, and 22 December. Numerous lava flows (pahoehoe and aa) were emitted from several points of the fracture system. This report covers the substantial SO2 emissions from both Nyamuragira and nearby Nyiragongo (15 km SE) between November 2011 and April 2016, and the onset of eruptive activity, including a new lava lake, at the summit crater beginning in May 2014. This report conveys information from a variety of sources credited below, but largely from Dario Tedesco and the GORISK Scientific Network. According to Tedesco (2010), both tectonic earthquake (fracturing) and volcanic tremors (magma degassing) occurred simultaneously with the appearance of lava at the surface (figure 32). Additional satellite imagery. Rob Wright reported that this linear anomaly corresponded to an extensive lava flow. Information Contacts: Dieudonné Wafula, Observatore Volcanologie de Goma (RDC-E), Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo; Andy Harris, Eric Pilger and Luke Flynn, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology at the School of Ocean and Earth Science Technology (HIGP/SOEST), University of Hawaii, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822; United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), United Nations, New York, NY 10017 USA (URL: https://reliefweb.int/). Information Contacts: Kasereka Mahinda and Jacques Durieux, Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (Goma Volcano Observatory), Department de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. On 27 October at 1500, another swarm of long-period earthquakes began beneath the same area. Information Contacts: Y. Pottier, IRS; M. Krafft, Cernay; H. Tazieff, CNRS. An analysis of the chronological tabulation of anomaly pixels during this 30-day period showed a concentration from 27 November to 16 December.
Sources: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG); Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC); Agence France-Presse (AFP). Eruptions can be large and spectacular, and flows can reach up to tens of kilometers from the volcano very quickly. Nyamuragira volcano (3058m) is a large basaltic shield volcano located about 15 km north of the city of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo. For more than a week, cloud cover mostly obscured the view from space until the Advanced Land Imager on NASA’s EO-1 satellite captured images on November 12, 2011. A team of Japanese seismologists measured strong seismic activity 6-9 January, then a decrease on the 10th. Residents of Katale and Tongo, the closest villages to the volcano, reported some rumblings on 30 April between 1730 and 2130, plus clear sounds of individual explosions. An eruption began at Nyamuragira on the evening of 25 July that produced a cloud composed of steam, gas, and ash, 100- to 200-m-high lava fountains, and lava flows down the volcano's N and S flanks.
Nyamuragira also was the scene of a greater number of high frequency (HF) and long-period (LP) earthquakes. Cones at the W vents stood about 80 m above the surface of the lava. (VRP = 18.9 x APIX x DLMIR where 18.9 is a best-fit regression coefficient (Wooster and others, 2003), APIX is the pixel size (1 km2 for the MODIS pixels) and DLMIR is the above background MIR radiance of the pixel.) N-flank fractures had opened and extended for ~2 km, reaching from the crater rim (2,959 m) down to an elevation of ~2,540 m. At the beginning of the activity, lava fountains appeared along the fractures and spatter accumulated around them. Two lava flows were extruded, one that extended about 3 km to the SW, the other about 1 km to the W. The eruption was continuing as of 31 December. Incandescence at the summit and increased seismicity was reported again in April 2014, along with increasing SO2 values. Nayar, A., 2009, A lakeful of trouble: Nature (News Feature), v. 460, p. 321-323 (16 July 2009), Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Smets, B., Kervyn, M., and Kervyn, F., 2010a, Analysis of historical eruptive activity at Nyamulagira (North Kivu, D.R.C. During this time volcanic seismicity was masked by aftershocks from a tectonic earthquake on 24 October 2002. Because the volcano is located inside the National Park ~ 40 km NNW of Goma, potential lava flows were not expected to threaten the city. Africa and the Red Sea. Zana, N., Tanaka, K., Janssen, T., and Mukeng, K., 1988, Seismic behaviour of volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira prior and during eruptive episodes: Proceedings, Kagoshima International Conference on Volcanoes, p. 547-550. Residents living in the villages of Katale and Tongo, the settlements closest to the volcano, reported rumblings on 30 April, in addition to clear noises of individual explosions. During the beginning of March lava flows reached lengths of 10-20 km as they traveled N, SE, and SW (figure 17). Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. N. Zana judged the volume of ejecta to be much more than in the 1976, 1980, or 1982 eruptions. Information Contacts: Benoît Smets, (a) Center for Geodynamics and Seismology, Walferdange, Luxembourg; (b) Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Geography; Earth System Science, Brussels, Belgium; (c) Royal Museum for Central Africa, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Hazards and Cartography Service, Tervuren, Belgium; Nicolas d’Oreye, European Center for Geodynamics, and Seismology, Walferdange, Luxembourg and National Museum of Natural History, Geophysics/Astrophysics Department, Walferdange, Luxembourg; Nicolas Theys, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels, Belgium; and Julien Barriere, European Center for Geodynamics and Seismology, Walferdange, Luxembourg and National Museum of Natural History, Geophysics/Astrophysics Department, Walferdange, Luxembourg; Goma Volcanological Observatory (GVO, aka Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma), Mt. Lava initially flowed NE, covering an area 2 km long and 0.5 km wide, with a maximum thickness of about 1 m. The second (main) flow moved more than 7 km, then turned in a northeasterly direction, over the 1958 Kitsimbanyi Flow, destroying a 13 km-long section of forest in Rwindi National Park. A lava lake was present within the eastern cone during February 2012 through the end of the eruption in April 2012. Courtesy of Simon Carn. Incandescence was visible from the village of Gisenyi, Rwanda, roughly 30 km from the vent. Lava flows extended up to 15 km from the two main cones. Table 2. Nyamuragira is Africa's most active volcano. Fresh lava reappeared inside the summit crater in mid-April 2018 from a lava lake and adjacent spatter cone. The most persistent activity at a single vent, 25 October-3 February, has made Cone 3 the largest of the eruption, rising ~80 m above the surrounding lava plain. Depths for all of the earthquakes decreased from W to E and from S to N, suggesting a volcanic conduit rising in a generally NE direction towards the surface on the ESE flank of Nyamuragira. Information Contacts: Card 1164 (01 April 1971) Sergio Bottazi, Gisenyi, Rwanda. 2005: June
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